工作生活与爱好

工作中的记录; 生活中的记忆; 业余爱好的记载。

2007-01-31

 

Define whether the Material can be used at which business process

The materaial status is very useful if you want to block the material from being used
at a certain business process.

For example :-

You want to designate a material as a material to be discontinued. In the master record,
you give the material a status whose parameters have the following settings:

Parameters in transaction OMS4 (Double click the status line items for IMG Settings) :

Purchasing "B" = error message

MRP "A" = warning

Inventory Management " " = no message

If the material is used, this parameter assignment has the following effect:

Purchasing
You can perform no further purchasing function for the material; for example, you can
enter no further purchase order for the material.
In this instance, you are given a corresponding error message.

MRP
If you plan requirements for the material, you are warned that the material is one to
be discontinued.

Inventory Management
You can continue to withdraw the material from stores; no message is given.

 

Control the Number Range Intervals for Material Master

You can define the Material Master Number Range in transaction MMNR.

Click the button Groups to Maintain the Material Type Grouping.

Below are those material type that have no number range groups.

To assign a group, in the not assigned group, select the Material Type you want to group.

Then tick the Group you want to assign and click the menu path Edit -> Assign Element Group.

From the same screen, if you want a new number range intervals, click Group -> Insert Group.

If you decided to used an external number range, goto transaction OMS2 and
tick the field External no. assignment w/o check.

You have two ways of assigning number range :

Internal number assignment
In this case, a number within the number range interval allowed is assigned by the SAP R/3 System.

External number assignment
Here, the user assigns a number within the number range interval allowed. You can define the intervals for external number assignment numerically and alphanumerically.

You can assign one or more material types to each group.

If you assign just one material type to a group, you can define both an internal and an external number range interval for the material type.

If you group together more than one material type, you can define an internal and an external number range interval here too. This allows several material types to have the same number range intervals.

 

One Storage Location for Two Different Plant

Can one storage location be extended to two different plants?
Eg plant PPL01-- storage loc 1) sc01 2)sc02.

Can another plant PPL02 have any of the storage locations of PPL01.

You can duplicate a storage location identifier at different plants but each of those is a unique storage location. For example Plant = 0001 Storage location = S001 and Plant = 0002 Storage location = S001. Those two storage locations, both called S001, are totally separate unique storage locations. They just both happen to be named S001. Material is valued at the plant level therefore you cannot have a single storage location that spans two plants.

A storage location has to be unique for a specific plant only. It cannot be common to two plants.

You can use the same storage location number for two different plants and the system identifies them uniquely based on the plant/storage location combination.

e.g (Storage location 01 in Plant Mumbai) and (Storage location 01 in Plant Bangalore).

Just ask yourself a question:

Which plant will the material in a given storage location belong to when you take the inventory at plant level ?

If physically you are using the same warehouse or godown for two different plants, still I am sure you are maintaining separate books for the inventory of each plant. These separate books are separate storage location in the system assigned to each plant though physically they are same.

Configure the Storage Location:
You can configure same store location for two diiferent plants:

Display IMG----- >Enterprice structure---> Definition----->Maintain storage location

Enter Storage Location for Each Material:

In Transaction MMSC enter Material and Plant and click List extendable slocs only.

Then enter sloc and save.


 

Delete storage location in material master

Assuming that you have create a Material master in Plant : P001 and Storage location : 0001 and 0002.

Later, you would like to delete storage location : 0002 in this Material master.

In MM06 Enter Material number, plant and storage location.

Press enter, and set the cross in front of storage location.

Next, you need to run archiving to get it physically out of the SAP system.

 

Block or Delete Any Material From Material Master

To list materials which are flagged for deletion, without any development work.

Go to MB52 which is basically a stock report.

In the "Settings" section, tick "Display Materials flagged for Deletion".

It will give you the stocks of materials flagged for deletion.

How can we block or delete any material from material master?

When engineering marks a finished goods material master for deletion, it does not prevent customer service from booking an order against it. However, MRP ignores it and would not suggest a planned order or a purchase requistion(for buy-outs).

Where in configuration can I block customer service from booking an order for deleted material master? Currently, there is a pop up window to tell the order entry personnel that the material master is marked for deletion but that person can still process the order.

We can obsolete a matl master at Sale Data 1 which will prevent order entry but very often, our document control or engineer forgets and head straight to marking an item for deletion and not archiving it after that.

The best way is to keep the materail status with deleted or blocked for puchase / sales and need to maintain in the materail master.

You cannot delete the material from material master until archiving but you can block that material for any procurement

Goto Basic data 1

X-plant matl status ------ 01 Blocked for procment/whse
02 Blocked for task list/BOM
10 Blocked for MRP
Select any one.

Valid from ----------- Here you enter valid date from which the material should be blocked.

So from this your material will be blocked for any PR/PO/any transactions related to Procurement


 

Displaying Material Flag of Deletion

To list materials which are flagged for deletion, without any development work.

Go to MB52 which is basically a stock report.

In the "Settings" section, tick "Display Materials flagged for Deletion".

It will give you the stocks of materials flagged for deletion.


 

Creation of same Material Code in Different Company Codes

Our requirement : To create one material code (eg., A123) with different material type (HALB & UNBW) in two different company's plants. We have created A123 material code with HALB in 1000 company's 1100 plant. While creating A123 material with UNBW material type in 2000 company's 2100 plant, system is taking default material type as HALB, as already created for 1000 company's 1100 plant.
This requirement is due to the Job work process (non-valuated material) in 2000 company.

The basic data (like Matl. no., description, UOM etc.) in material master are maintain at client level. We can not maintain the same at company code level. So in your case you have to maintain two seperate code for different companies, with different matl type.

But you can for the same material type to define, that in some valuation areas it has update by value and quantity, but in another valuation areas only by quantity. Maybe you don't have to have two material types:)

Detail and what are the settings are required in customization:

tr.code OMS2
1)Select details of material type and on end of screen in part 'Quantity/Value update" select for Value update radiobutton "By Valuation Area"

2)After that on left side of screen select folder "Quantity/Value update" and set in which areas you need value update by setting indicator in column "Value update".


 

Price Control V or S in material type

When is it useful to use the price control V or S in Material Master ?
Do I have to follow the SAP standard setting in the material type for the following material types:
ROH(Raw materials) -> moving average price
HALB(Semifinished products) -> standard price
FERT(Finished products) -> standard price
In which case and why is useful to change these standard setting in material type?

SAP strongly recommends that you do not select price control V for semi-finished products and finished products, because doing so will very easily cause the calculation of unrealistic valuation prices. SAP recommends:
Price control V for raw materials and trading goods; price control S for semi-finished products and products.

If you nevertheless select price control V, take care in the following situations:

1. Unrealistic prices occur if materials are produced and also retire during one period (that is, the inventory at the end of the period is smaller than the total of aquisitions from production orders) and if, in addition, several production orders belonging to a material were finished in this period, and the production order settlement calculates variances at the end of the period. Every single production order carries out an inventory coverage check and may therefore cause the moving average price to be changed. However, the individual production orders do not check whether the inventory available at the end of the period has already been debited by another production order.

Example: on 20 workdays in the period, 1 piece of material xyz was produced for each day and delivered to the warehouse at a price of USD 1000. At the end of the period there is 1 piece at the warehouse. Since an activity price of a participating cost center was higher than planned , every single production order calculates cost of goods manufactured of USD 1100 during the settlement. Every single one carries out a inventory coverage check and finds out that the variance can be posted completely to the inventory. That is, the ending inventory of one piece is debited with USD 20 x 100 and it consequently receives a price of USD 3000.

1. A settlement is carried out although not all costs have yet been posted to the order. This can even result in a price of 0 for the delivered product.
2. No period check of the costs is carried out on the order, that is, costs from previous periods may be settled.
3. Settling orders is already possible in the 'Delivery completed' status.

Solution: Standard price for products together with possible manual price changes.
If you are required to valuate semi-finished and finished products with actual prices that correspond to the costs of the actual production, SAP recommends you use the function of the material ledger for this. Here, a periodic actual price is created that is calculated on a much more reliable basis than the moving average price. A so-called price limiter quantity is used which makes sure that in the above example price differences are proportionally taken into account (95% of the total price differences) when valuating the 19 pieces withdrawn from material xyz which results in a periodic actual price of 1100 USD. In addition, it is possible as of Release 4.5 to even take into account the variances of the actual prices of the raw materials in the valuation of the semi-finished and finished products that are manufactured from it.


 

物料分割评估 Split Valuation for Materials

The SAP R/3 System allows you to valuate stocks of a material either together or separately, that is, according to different valuation criteria. Split valuation is necessary if, for example:

1. Stock from in-house production has a different valuation price than externally procured stock.

2. Stock obtained from one manufacturer is valuated at a different price than stock obtained from another manufacturer.

3. Different batch stocks of a material have different valuation prices.

4. Value damaged and repair part differently from a new part.

To used split valuation, you have to activate it using 'OMW0'.

To change split material valuation once it has been set, you must

1. first post out all stocks (for example, to a cost center or with movement type 562)
2. then change the control parameters
3. if necessary, change the automatic account determination
4. finally post the stocks back in again

In split valuation, you can distinguish between partial stocks of a material according to certain criteria and valuate them separately.

The material stock is divided according to valuation category and valuation type.

The valuation category determines how the partial stocks are divided, that is, according to which criteria.

The valuation type describes the characteristics of the individual stocks.

With the function "Setting" you can determine:

which valuation categories exist in your company (global categories)
which valuation types exist in your company (global types)
which valuation types belong to which valuation category
which valuation categories exist in a valuation area (local categories)

Your entries are only relevant if you set split valuation as active in the function "Global settings".

In the standard SAP R/3 System, the following valuation categories are default settings :

B procurement type

with the valuation types:

"EIGEN" for in-house production
"FREMD" for external procurement

H Origin

X automatic valuation (only for batch)

To select split valuation ('OMWC'), proceed as follows:

1. Determine the valuation categories and valuation types that are allowed for all valuation areas:
global valuation categories via menu "Goto --> Global Categories"
global valuation types via menu "Goto --> Global Types"

2. Allocate the valuation types to the valuation categories.
a) Select "Goto --> Global Categories".
b) Position the cursor on a valuation category and select
"Goto --> Global Categories --> Assignments --> 'Types->Category'".
c) Activate the valuation types you want.

3. Determine the local valuation categories for each valuation area.
a) Select "Goto --> Local definitions".
b) Position the cursor on a valuation area and select
"Goto --> Local Definitions --> Allocate Categoires->Org.units (button Cats->(OU)".
You obtain a list of the global valuation categories.
c) Activate the categories to be used in this valuation area.
The system creates the local valuation types based on the allocations under point 2.
Only now can you create a master record with split valuation.

Specifying Split Valuation by creating Material Subject to Split Valuation

1. Create a material master record, selecting the Accounting View 1.
2. Enter your data as required on the Accounting data screen, specifying a valuation category.
(If you can't find the valuation category field, it might be hidden, use OMSR to define the Field Groups.
Look for the field MBEW-BWTTY for Valuation category).
3. Be sure that the price control indicator is V for moving average price and enter a moving average price.
4. In the case of split valuation, you can create only one valuation header record with price control V because the
individual stock values are cumulated, and this total value is written to the valuation header record. This is where the
individual stocks of a material are managed cumulatively. To do this, fill in the Valuation category field on the accounting
screen when you create the material master record and leave the Valuation type field blank.
5. Save your data and the system creates the valuation header record.
6. The initial screen appears.
7. Extend the material by creating new material master records from the Accounting view 1. For the first material, specify a
valuation type in the Organizational Levels dialog box and enter the respective accounting data on the data screen.
Proceed likewise for the other materials, distinguishing between them by valuation type. To do this, call up the material in
creation mode again. Due to the fact that a valuation header record exists, the system requires you to enter a valuation
type for the valuation category.
8. Repeat step seven for every valuation type planned.

You want to valuate the stock of material XYZ that you obtain from manufacturer A in Los Angeles at a different price than the stock you obtain from manufacturer B in Detroit. In this case, the valuation category is H for origin. Your valuation types can be LOS ANGELES and DETROIT.

If a material is subject to split valuation, every quantity (sub-stock) of this material must be assigned to a valuation type (for example, country of origin).

For every valuation type, there are two types of data in the system, as follows:

Valuation data (for example, valuation price, total stock quantity, total stock value), which is defined for every valuation type at valuation-area level and applies to all dependent storage locations.

Stock data, which, like batch data, is managed separately for each storage location. If a material that is subject to split valuation is also subject to management in batches, its stock data is not managed by valuation type, but rather by batch. Every batch is assigned to a valuation type.

The stock quantity, stock value, and valuation price for all valuation types are managed cumulatively at valuation-area level.

Must the Valuation Type Exist Before the First Goods Receipt?

You can post the goods receipt of material of a certain valuation type only if the valuation data for this valuation type already exists, because the system valuates the goods receipt at the price defined in the valuation data. On the other hand, the stock data for the valuation type is created automatically during the first goods receipt into the storage location, if this is defined in Customizing for Inventory Management.

Goods Movements with Materials Subject to Split Valuation

If you want to enter goods movements for materials subject to split valuation, you must enter the valuation type in addition to the material number.

Enter the valuation type in the Batch field for MB01.

In MIGO, there is a valuation type field in Detail data -> Material.


 

Changing the Material Valuation Types

Assuming you have defined split valuation types in the sap img, you must remove all stock for the current period and one previous period before you can create the material with different valuation types.

The best method is to wait until the last day of a period, and then perform a physical inventory adjustment to remove the stock.

Then on the first day of the next period you can set up the material accounting views for each split valuation type.

After the material valuation types are set up for the material, you can do an inventory adjustment to put the stock back in.

Make sure you notify your accounting inventory control departments as to the quantities and values you are taking out at
the end of the period.

 

SAP Batch Handling

In simple terms SAP Batch Handling means an additional keys fields for users to identify the same materials.

For e.g. Normal Control : Plant + Material + Storage Location
Batch Hanlding : Plant + Material + Storage Location + Batch Number

The structure of the material master record allows you to manage stocks of a material by value at plant level or company-code level and by quantity down to storage-location level. Under certain conditions, you may need to make further subdivisions for a material and manage batches.

Certain materials' features cannot always be guaranteed to be exactly alike in production. For example, you cannot guarantee that a certain color will always have the same shade. Minor differences between production lots cannot be avoided. You need to be able to uniquely identify the individual production lots of the same material and manage them separately in inventory.

Materials that require such precise identification, for example pharmaceutical products, are identified and managed in stock not only according to material number, but also according to batch number.

With batch handling, you can manage not only production lots from in-house production, but also production lots from vendors as separate entities.

It is possible to supplement standard batch management with batch status management.

What Is a Material Handled in Batches?

Before you can manage batches of a material in stock, you must first specify in the material master record that the material is to be managed in batches for the specified plant. To do this, you must set the batch management requirement indicator in the material master record (for example, in the Purchasing view field MARA-XCHPF or Storage Location view field MARC-XCHPF).

Level of Batch Number Assignment

If a material is subject to management in batches, every quantity of that material must be assigned to a batch. Each batch of a material is identified by a unique batch number, under which it is managed. This number is either entered by the user (external number assignment) or assigned automatically by the system.

You can define number assignment for batches at various levels:

- Uniquely at client level for a material
- Uniquely at material level
- Uniquely at plant level

In the standard R/3 System, numbers are assigned to the individual materials at plant level.

For every batch, there are two types of data:

- General data on the batch (for example, shelf life expiry date, date of the last goods receipt), which is defined in the master batch. The master batch applies to all storage locations in which the batch is located. No stocks are managed at this level.
- Stock data, which is managed separately for every storage location in which the batch is located.

For example, if the batch C1 of a material is spread across two different storage locations, the stock quantity is tracked for each storage location.

Must the Batch Exist Before the First Goods Receipt?
Both the master batch and the stock data for the batch are created automatically during the first goods receipt. Thus, you do not need to create this data manually. However, if you want to define specific data for a batch, such as the shelf life expiration date, you have to manually maintain the batch data.

What Sorts of Batch Stocks Are There?
The following stocks are managed separately at batch level:
- Unrestricted-use stock
- Restricted-use stock
- Quality inspection stock
- Blocked stock
- Stock in transfer
- Blocked stock returns

Working with Materials Handled in Batches
When you enter goods movements for materials handled in batches, you must enter the batch number in addition to the material number. If you do not know the batch number, you can search for the batch using the required characteristics.

 

物料管理配置mm-configuration-tips

Maintain Plant

Plant 0001 is the SAP default.

OX14 - Define Valuation Area (Tick one only- Once your system go live, no more changes)
Most company take the SAP recommended choice - Value Material Stock at Plant level
Value Material Stock at Plant or Company Level

    • If you valuate material stocks at plant level, the plant is the valuation area.
    • If you valuate material stocks at company code level, the company code is the valuation area.
    • The decision you make applies to the whole client.
OX10 - Create / Change / View Plants

OVXB - Create / Change / View Division

OX18 - Assign Plant to company code
e.g. 0001 - 0001 - All Plants
Px1 - Plant Px1
Px2 - Plant Px2
OX19 - Assignment of company code to the Controlling Area

OB38 - Assign company code to Credit Control Area

OMJ7 - Assign business area to Plant/Valuation area and division
e.g. Plant Px1 - Business Area Bx1
Bx2
Assign Valuation area to the Business Area
.e.g. Valuation area Vx1 - Business Area Bx1
Business Area Bx2

OMS0 - Assign Factory Calendar to the Plant and Business Area

The plant plays an important role in the following areas:

  • Material Valuation - If the valuation level is the plant, the material stocks are valuated at plant level. Each plant can have its own material prices and account determination.
  • Inventory Management - The material stocks are managed within a plant.
  • MRP - Material requirements are planned for each plant. Each plant has its own MRP data. Analyses for materials planning can be made across plants.
  • Production - Each plant having they own production/planning.
  • Costing - In costing, valuation prices are defined only within a plant.
  • Plant Maintenance - If a plant performs plant maintenance planning tasks, it is defined as a maintenance planning plant. A maintenance planning plant can also carry out planning tasks for other plants (maintenance plants).
If you want to use the application PP (production planning) or product costing and job-order costing, you must set valuation at plant level.

The valuation level that you choose affects

  • the maintenance of material master records
  • the G/L accounts in which material stocks are managed
  • the G/L accounts to which transactions are posted in Materials Management
Effect on the maintenance of material master records:

Depending on the valuation level chosen,

  • you maintain accounting data in the material master record for each plant or for each company code
  • you define a valuation price for the material in each plant or in each company code
Effect on G/L accounts:

If material stocks are valuated at company code level, all plant stocks of a material are managed in a joint stock account for each company code.
If material stocks are valuated at plant level, you can manage the material stocks for each plant in different accounts. For each plant, you can define a separate determination.
If several plants are to use account determination, you can group these plants in "Valuation and Account Assignment" Customizing.

Material Master - Introduction

The material master is the starting point for the rest of the modules.

What Material Types are there?

The material types that you use are configured in Customizing for the Material Master under

Logistics Master Data : Material Master -> Material -> Control data -> Define material type attributes.

The following list shows you the material types contained, for example, in the standard SAP R/3 System, and what their different roles are:

DIEN (services)
Services are procured externally and cannot be stored. A material master record of this material type can always contain purchasing data.

FERT (finished products)
Finished products are produced by the company itself. Since they cannot be ordered by Purchasing, a material master record of this material type does not contain purchasing data.

FHMI (production resources/tools)
Production resources/tools are procured externally and used in the manufacture of products. A material master record of this material type can contain purchasing data, but no sales data. It is managed on a quantity basis. Examples of production resources/tools are apparatus, equipment, and measuring and testing devices.

HALB (semifinished products)
Semifinished products can be procured externally (sub-contracting) as well as manufactured in-house. They are then processed by the company. A material master record of this material type can contain both purchasing and work scheduling data.

HAWA (trading goods)
Trading goods are always procured externally and then sold. A material master record of this material type can contain purchasing and sales data.

HIBE (operating supplies)
Operating supplies are procured externally and required for the manufacture of other products. A material master record of this material type can contain purchasing data but no sales data.

NLAG (non-stock material)
Non-stock material is material that is not held in stock because it is consumed immediately. (Office supplies such as stationary. You need to create purchase order and accounting document for payment but the stock balance is always zero as it is issued out immediately to the various department.)

ROH (raw materials)
Raw materials are always procured externally and then processed. Since raw materials cannot be sold, a material master record of this material type contains no sales data.

UNBW (non-valuated materials)
Non-valuated materials are managed on a quantity basis, but not by value.

VERP (packaging materials)
Packaging materials are used to transport goods and come with the goods free of charge. A material master record of this material type is managed both on a quantity basis and by value.

WETT (competitive products)
Competitive products have their own material master records created from the Basic Data view. The competitor's number, which is stored in the material master record, assigns the material to a particular competitor.

Maintain the Material Type

OMS2 - Material Type Maintenance - Create/Change/Display

Steps:-

  • transaction OMS2
  • click Change
  • key in the Material Type you want to change e.g. FERT then hit enter
The Views belows allows you to choose the Views for each Material Type.
(Press the Page up/Page Down keys to scroll the views)

If you tried to change from FERT to HAWA in 4.6x, you will receive an error message :-
The material type cannot be changed. This is not allowed if only external procurement is defined for the new material type, or if the new material type has a different account category reference than the old material type.

To overcome it, goto OMS2 and change the HAWA material type.
In the Internal/external purchase orders sections:
Original Changes
Ext. purchase orders 2 1
Int. purchase orders 0 1

Screens in Material Master

  • MM01 - Create, MM02 - Change, MM03 - Display and MM06 - Flag for deletion.
  • MM04 - Display the changes done to the material master.
  • MMAM - Change the Material Type. for e.g. from FERT to HALB
Configure the Material Master Screen MM01 / MM02 / MM03

OMSR - Assign the field to the field group
OMS9 - Maintain the data screen field

Unit of Measure

In the material master, there is a Units of measure button for users to store in the different conversion rate. This sample program (ZUNT) extract the data from the unit of measure conversion table.

In the Material Master the moving average price are affected by:-

  • Goods Receipt for Purchase Orders
  • Transfer from Plant to Plant
  • Invoice Receipt
  • Settlement
  • Price Change
Common configuration changes-
  • define new material group (OMSF)
  • define new valuation class (OMSK) and automatic posting (OBYC)
  • define new material account assignment group (transaction OVK5) and
    Customer/Material/Account keys (transaction VKOA)
Block materials from inventory posting
After blocking, when the user do a inventory posting, they will get this error message :-

E: Material xxxxx has status Blocked for procmnt/whse

To activate the blocking :-

Goto transaction MM02 - Purchasing View

Type in 01 at the MM/PP status field and save it

Create Delivery Log - Material xxx is blocked

During the Create Delivery (VL01), SAP prompt you a log that Material xxx is blocked.

During the Sales Order Create/Change for that material, there might be some update termination that causes the locked of the material (Windows hanged or power failure).

You can check using transaction SM12 - type an "*" at the User name field.

Check whether the material is in the locked list.

If it is in the locked list, asked the user to log out before you delete it from the locked list.

Maintain Storage Location

MMSC - Collective entry of Storage Location for a material.

Insert new or delete un-used Storage Location.

Maintain whether the storage location was included or excluded from MRP run.

Block Storage Location from further posting

1. You can block the storage location of a material without affecting the rest of the location using the same material.
Create a Physical Inventory document for the storage location with transaction MI01

Select the Posting Block checkbox.
This would prevent transactions from occuring until you either post or delete the physical inventory document.
(There are no impact, unless you do a post difference for the physical inventory document.)

2. Another method is to rename the storage location name.

Go to transaction OX09
Edit -> Copy as (copy the original storage location to a new name, replacing the first character e.g. ZXXX)
Edit -> Delete (delete the original storage location)

Do the reverse if you want back the original storage location.

Accounting document number range for MM

Transaction OMW9

Document Type - Double click on desire transaction code to check the document type for number range.
(e.g. MR21 Document type - PR)

Financial accounting document type - Assign the document type to a number range and account type.
(e.g. PR - Account type allowed for posting will be MS)

  • Double click on the document type PR.
  • Assign an unique starting number range that was not used. e.g. 88
  • Choose the Account type for Material and G/L account (MS)
  • The rest of the fields are optional (you can leave it as blank)
SAP definitions for account type -
  • A - Assets
  • D - Customers
  • K - Vendors
  • M - Material
  • S - G/L accounts
Number ranges for financial accounting document type - Assign the number range to the running number range.

No. Year (till) From number To number Current number Ext (no tick internal or tick external)
88 9999 8800000000 8899999999 Track by SAP Blank

Accounting document will be generated if there are stocks during price change, if you don't have any stocks, no accounting document will be generated as there are no inventory to revaluate for price differences.

Valuation Class for Material Group

In 4.6x and 4.5b, you can assign valuation class to Material Group.

It is useful in the sense that user do not have to manually do an Account Assignments.

For stock items, valuation class cannot be changed whenever the stock on hand is not zero.

Valuation class are tied to a G/L account.

A change of valuation class means a change of G/L account.

In FI concept, you have to debit and credit to balance the G/L account. That is why your stock must be zero before the system allows you to changed the valuation class. If it is not zero, you have to either transfer it to another material or do a dummy issues. After changing the valuation class, do a reversal entries for the stocks which you have transfer out or you have done a dummy issues.

IMG - Material Management -> Purchasing -> Material Master -> Entry aids for items without a Material Master

G/L Accounts in MM Account Determination

The program RM07C030 check all the G/L account define in your Material Master valuation class.

Search is via Company code and Valuation area.

Compare fields status for movement types against General Ledger

Use SA38 then run RM07CUFA


 

Safety Stock Calculation in SAP

Let me try and explain to you through a mix of functional procedures and how SAP calculates the Safety Stock:

In normal materials management there are basically 2 basic inventory management systems, the P system and the Q system.

P system is a system wherein replenishment is done keeping the quantity constant. The period becomes the variant. In other words you fix the quantity you want the stock to dip, to trigger a requirement. As soon as the stock level is reached you replenish the stock. During a lean period the time taken to reach the level will be longer and during an active period the time taken to reach that stock could drop.This normally relates with your consumption based planning.

Q system is a system wherein replenishment is done keeping the period constant. The quantity becomes the variant. In other words you will check for the level of stock at fixed time intervals (daily, weekly, monthly etc.) compare it with the requirements on that day and trigger the procurement process for replenishment.This normally relates with your MRP.

Now there are 4 more factors that could affect the idealistic procurement pattern:
1. Ordering Lead-time.
2. Manufacuring Lead-time
3. Transporting Lead-time
4. Stock conversion Lead-time (or Quality Inspection lead time)

A delay in any or all of the above can have effect on the entire replenishment process and the stock. A buffer stock must be designed to take into account the above coverage. Again the determination of your safety stock depends on the accuracy of your forecast. Higher your accuracy, lower your safety stock. This relationship between forecast accuracy and service level
is denoted by factor R. This also takes into account that the customer demand cannot be always satisfied 100% of the time.

Hence what we have is:
R = Relationship between forecast accuracy and service level (Service Factor)
W = Delivery time (in days) / Forecast Period (in days)
MAD = Mean absolute deviation (parameter for forecast accuracy)

Now If replenishment lead time is greater than the forecast period by factor W then:

Safety Stock = R x Sq.rt. W x MAD

Else

Safety Stock = R x W x MAD

Now in SAP If the material is produced in-house, the delivery time is: opening period + in-house production time + goods receipt processing time. It is expressed in workdays. The forecast period is taken from the material master record and is also expressed in workdays.

If the material is procured externally, the delivery time is: Processing time for purchasing + planned delivery time + goods receipt processing time. It is expressed in calendar days. The forecast period is taken from the material master record and is also expressed in calendar days.

As a result of this you will have observed now that the safety stock must cover both the unplanned material excess consumption, as well as the additional requirements caused by delayed deliveries.

In SAP you can specify a minimum safety stock. If the result of the safety stock calulation by the system is lower than this limit, the safety stock is automatically set to this value. You enter the minimum safety stock in the material master record (MRP 2 screen).

Safety Stock:

In IMG -> Materials Management -> consumption Based Planning -> Master Data -> Check MRP Types (transaction code OMDQ) you use the indicator Calculate Safety Stock so that system calculates the safety stock automatically.

The safety stock can be calculated automatically for materials planned with one of the consumption-based planning procedures if:
1. The service level has been maintained in the material master record.
2. Historical data exists
3. The forecast has been carried out for the material.

Dynamic Safety Stock:

If the option Define Range of coverage profiles is chosen in IMG (Tr.Code OM1A) you can determine a safety stock level that takes into account:

1. Requirements.
2. Range of coverage

The limiting factors to the above are:

1. Maximum and minimum range of coverage ( defined period , that is month, week or PPC planning calendar)
2. Determination of various periods for the validity of the range of coverage.

The system uses the formula:

Dynamic safety stock = average daily requirements (ADR) x Range of coverage

ADR = Requirements in the specific period / number of days in the total period length (defined period x standard days)

Please note here that if you carry out the planning run even in the middle of the month the system will include even the requirements planned at the beginning of the month.

Please also note that you can determine the range of coverage for a maximum of 3 periods.

1. Range of Coverage in the First Period
2. Range of Coverage in the second period
3. Range of coverage on the rest of the horizon

However you have the option of maintaining different coverage for each of these periods.

Based on your customization the system determines the number of days used for calculating your average daily requirement

Minimum Stock Level (mSL) = ADR x minimum range of coverage
Target Stock Level (Dynamic Safety Stock this is DSL) = ADR x Target range of coverage.
Maximum Stock Level (MSL) = ADR x maximum range of coverage.

Having confirmed the above, I will now try and explain through an example how the system calculates the Dynamic safety stock:

Presume that the system has determined the ADR as 25 Kgs for a material.

You have set the following in customizing:

Minimum Range of coverage = 2 days
Target Range of coverage = 6 days
Maximum Range of coverage = 10 days

Now the System determines the following;

mSL = 2*25 = 50 KGs
DSL = 6*25 = 150 KGs
MSL = 10*25 = 250 KGs

This is what happens for various levels of stock

Case 1:

Stock = 45 Kgs
System Activity = DSL - stock
Procurement Proposal = 105 Kgs

Case 2:

Stock = 60 Kgs
System Activity = DSL - stock
Procurement Proposal = 90 Kgs

Case 3:

Stock = 155 Kgs
System Activity = none
Procurement Proposal = none

Case 4:

Stock = 255 Kgs

System Activity = System checks whether the procurement proposal is firmed and if yes it displays an exception message.

Also note that in the case of Time Phased materials planning The range of coverage is calculated differently.


 

Procedures for copying One Plant to Another

Can anyone give me a step by step process of creating another plant or storage location by copying from an existing one.

Celani Ndlovu

Plants Definition :
/NSPRO-IMG---Enterprise Structure---Definition---Logistic General---Define,copy,delete,check plant---Define Plant (In this, we are defining plants(s) under company which is defined earlier)

/NSPRO-IMG---Enterprise Structure---Definition---Logistic General---Define,copy,delete,check plant--- copy,delete,check plant---F6 to copy org. object from plant 0001 to defined plant(s).

Storage Location :
/NSPRO-IMG---Enterprise Structure---Definition---Materials Management---Maintain Storage Location-New Entries (Define required storage location(s) under different plant(s) )

/NSPRO-IMG---Enterprise Structure---Definition---Materials Management---Maintain Storage Location---Storage Location Description---- New Entries ( enter here addresses of each plants)

Rahul

Copy Organizational object Plant using Transaction: EC02.
(recommended to Copy from a standard sap plant)
Create or copy storage location using :OX09

Shipra

1. Copy existing plant A to new plant B. All of plant A’s data in throughout the IMG will be created/copied for plant B. In some cases with plant A data that is not desired. In step 3 you must go through and correct invalid entries

2. Correct address information

3. Correct data copied to plant B as plant A

(a) In Sales and Distribution -> Shipping -> Picking -> Determine Picking Location -> Assign Picking Locations (OVL3), delete entry where Shipping Point = plant A and Plant = plant B and press save.

(b) In Sales and Distribution -> Shipping -> Basic Shipping Functions -> Shipping Point Determination -> Assign shipping points – wherever plant B is found the shipping point is plant A. This must be changed to plant B.

(c) In Enterprise Structure -> Maintain Structure -> Assignment -> Sales and Distribution -> Assign shipping point to plant – delete plant B shipping point from the plant A assignement.

(d) In Enterprise Structure -> Maintain Structure -> Definition -> Sales and Distribution -> Define, copy, delete, check shipping point – copy shipping point plant A to shipping point plant B. Correct the description in the define section of this node.

(e) In Sales and Distribution -> Shipping -> Picking -> Determine Picking Location -> Assign Picking Locations (OVL3), copy plant A entry to plant B entry, changing all data to plant B.

(f) Check with Reorder buying group to determine MRP controllers for new plant. Remove plant A MRP controllers from plant B, and add controllers received from reorder buying group. IMG is Materials Management -> Consumption Based Planning -> Master Data -> Define MRP controllers

(g) Define special procurement. IMG is Materials Management -> Consumption Based Planning -> Master Data -> Define special procurement type.

(h) OMGN – Assign customer in “Set up stock transport order – [Plant]”.

(i) OMGN – in “Set up stock transport order – [Purchasing Document type]”; an entry was created for source plant B and plant A, this entry should have a UB order type and the check box should be off. Each plant needs a plant B UB entry created.

(j) OMJ3 – Delete incorrect entry in print parameters. Remove entry where plant = plant B & storage location = plant A. Create entry for plant B storage location B

(k) Verify entry for new plant exists in OVLT picking output

(l) Verify entry for new plant is correct in VP01

4. Manual configuration

(a) Create plant customer number and assign to plant in OMGN.

(b) OMJ3 – set correct printer for plant B

(c) OPK8 – Set printer for plant for list LG01. This is for production orders.

(d) Output determination OVLT (set printer),

In addition to above, other changes based on customization in your installation needs to be done as well.

 

Adding Views in Material Master

I am trying to add views using MM02. It is showing me just 3 views ...BASIC DATA1, BASIC DATA2 & CLASSIFICATION..... I want to add other views but am not able to do it.

There are 2 ways to add views to the existing material master:

1. Go to mm01
- Enter the material for which you want to add the views.
- Then you enter the same material in copy from material
- Then you may find all the view
- Then select the views you want to add and make entries in the same view and save it
All this is done in mm01.

or

You can mass extend views for a material in tcode mm50.
Select the maintenance status as V for e.g. if you want to add views of sales. *-- Chirag

2. If the default setting is done in the material of the material type then you may not find the new views in mm01
If that is the case, then you go to spro >> log general >> mat master >> basic sett >> material types >>
define attributes of materisl types.
- Select material type of the material in which you want to make the change
- Double click on the same, then on right hand side, you will find user parameters under which you will find the views
- Select the view you want and save your settings
- Then go to mm01 and do the way it is mentioned in the first step.


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