工作生活与爱好

工作中的记录; 生活中的记忆; 业余爱好的记载。

2007-02-02

 

生产排程综述

做什么都需要计划,制造企业的生产更是如此。企业做出销售预测,或是接到客户订单时,必须快速做出反映,能不能在要求的期间内完成订单,在什么时候完成, 完成订单需要哪些物料,库存情况怎样,哪些需要购买,哪些自已生产,在生产之前材料是否能准时到达工厂。企业内部的生产能力是否足够,是否需要协力厂商帮 助。完成订单购买材料应该向哪个供应商订购,供应商的交期多长,企业应该在什么时候下订购单,需要多少资金,预计在什么时候付款。所有这些问题都可以通过 计划管理进行有效的控制。

生产排程具有如下特点:
※ 对MPS彻底进行了简化,让MPS可以快速地、方便地、简单地执行
※ 把各种产品定义为几种产能类别
※ 每种产能类别定义每个工作日的产能
※ 运行MPS自动排定客户订单或销售预测的生产完成日期

确定出货产品在哪一个具体时间生产完成的计划叫主生产计划,即MPS。确定出货产品下面的材料或半成品在什么时候购买或生产多少数量的计划叫物料需求计 划,即MRP。确定生产成品、半成品需要多少工时能力的计划叫产能需求计划,即CRP。确定购买物料或外包外发需要多少资金,在什么时间需要付款的计划叫 资金需求计划,即FRP。各计划之间的关系如图8-1:


主生产计划MPS是ERP系统中计划的开始,排定了出货产品的完工日期后才能进行物料需求计划MRP。进行了物料需求计划,企业就知道工作中心在什么时候 需完成多少半成品或成品,据此可计算出完成半成品或成品需要多少工时,即进行能力需求计划。当能力不足时,可能需外包或外发,或者是重新调整MPS计划。 可能某些订单需提前或推后生产,同样,材料的购买日期也需调整,资金的需求随之会发生变化。也可能由于资金不足等原因需推迟订单交货期等。因此,下面的计 划由上面的计划驱动,即MRP、CRP、FRP都由MPS驱动,而MRP、CRP、FRP反过来都会影响MPS计划。

 

生产订单与主数据的集成 PO&&Master data

Production orders are used:
1, To control and monitor production within a factory(车间)
利用Production orders来控制和监控车间中的生产活动
2, As a controlling instrument(工具) for cost accounting
成本会计可以利用Production orders作为一个成本控制的工具


The production order display:
1, What and How Much is to be produced(including duration), when the production is to be executed.
2, What is required for production(components, resources), which method of production to be used.
3, Capacities(能力) e.g.machine(机器设备资源), labor(劳力资源), and Production costs(生产成本).


To logically control a production order, you need at least one routing and one BOM.

Cost:
Costs which have accrued(应计) to an order(生产订单) are debited to the allocation receiver(生产订单)
using settlement结算 rules.

Cost elements(下列成本项目会产生成本):
Production activities(生产活动), External activities(外部活动), Material consumption(消耗的物料),
Overhead costs(管理费用)

Time of cost debiting/crediting(成本的入账时间):
Material withdrawal(领取物料), Confirmation of operation(完工确认), Inward stock movement(内部库存移动),
Goods receipt(入库)/invoice receipt(收到发票)


 

5) 生产订单确认---Production Order Confirmations

Production order confirmations (sometimes called completion confirmations)
are used to record internal activities carried out for the production order.

用来记录Production order完成工序(operation)的进度

A confirmation is used to record:
1, Quantity produced at the operation(工序), 在某个工序上的数量
2,Amount of activity (for example labor hours人时) at the operation
(纪录完成这些工作花了多少人时,利于计算成本)
3,The work center where the operation was performed(工序在哪个工作中心完成?)
4, Who performed the operations(按人的贡献进行分配)

一次completion confirmation引起以下的事情:
1, A reduction of capacity load on the work center
(work center的工作被确认后,所以负荷减少,可以再接工作)
2, An update of costs(更新相关的成本中心)
3, Goods receipt of the completed product(接收产成品)

It is possible to enter confirmations in a non-SAP system and import them to SAP.


 

(2) 计划订单--Production Planning

Production Planning is the process of using forecast and customer demand to
create productin and procurement shedules for finished production and
component materials.

The overall manufacturing planning process is comprised of:
1, Sales & Operations Planning (SOP)
2, Master Production Scheduling (MPS)
3, Material Requirement Planning (MRP)

SOP uses forcast values and requirements from the sales information system
and costing/profitablility anslysis as inputs for determining planned independent requirements(独立需求计划).
Planned independent requirements(PIR) are planned quantities of a product over a given period of
time.

MPS items(those items that greatly influence profits or consume critical resources(关键部件和产成品)) are planned.
Planning the MPS items separately leads to
(a reduction in stock levels) and (improved delivery performance).
MPS is an optional step in the planning process.

MRP is the final step in the planning process. The output of MRP includes a planned orders
or a purshase requisitions(请购单).

The communication between SD and Production&Pecurement takes place via MRP.


 

物料的移动(goods movement)

物料的移动的几大类Movement Type(大类还有明细类):
1,goods receipt(接收物料)
2,goods issues(发送物料)
3,transfer posting(物料转移,例如:从一个库转到另一个库)

当物料移动(goods movement)发生时,产生以下两张documents:
1, A material document (从Warehouse(物流)的角度描述物料的移动)
2, A accoutning document (从value flow(价值流)的角度描述物料的移动)

From the material document display you can branch to the financial document display.


 

工艺与工作中心 Routing & Work Center

Routing: 是从纯技术的角度(抽象的角度)讨论物料的加工和产品的生成,不涉及到由谁加工,在哪里技工,在哪台机器上加工。

生产每一种特定产品就有一个特定的Routing, 生产同一大类产品或物料得所有Routing 或者生产同一产品和物料因不同的批量而需要

的多个Routing, 这些Routing可以组成一个组 A routing group.

Each Work Center contains distinct capacity, costing and scheduling information.

Each Work Center defined by the machines and employees involved in the production process.

Production Resource/Tools (PRTs)

Movable operating resource required for production. An example is a set of instructions, a tool or a machine that is not stationary.

 

Bill Of Material 物料清单

A bill of material is a complete, formally structured list of the components of a product or assembly.

A bill of material contains the description of each component, the quantity, and unit of measure.

A bill of material creates the relationships between an assembly and all of its direct components.(装配件和它的直接子件)

 

SAP BOM的读取逻辑

1 Search Material, Plant and Material Description.
Read the material number, plant and material description from join of MARA, MARC and MAKT using the following conditions:

Material Number (MARA-MATNR) in input material (select-options) and
Plant (MARC-WERKS) in input plant (select-options) and
Material type (MARA-MTART) in input material type (select-options).
Note: Proceeding to Step 2 or 3 or 4 depends on the input radio button for Production or Engineering or ALL BOM option.

2. Search for BOM – Engineering.
BOM link search from MAST -
Select material numbers and BOM link from MAST based on the material numbers selected above using the following conditions:
Material (MAST-MATNR) = Materials selected above and
Plant (MAST–WERKS) = As in input and
BOM usage (MAST-STLAN) = 2 (Engineering usage).
Read BOM Header and Item.
Read BOM Header details as per data mapping (Section 5.2) from table STKO using the
conditions:
BOM Number (STKO-STLNR) = BOM number got in previous step and
BOM alternative (STKO-STLAL) = BOM alternative got in previous step.

Read Item details as per data mapping from STOP using the conditions :
BOM number (STOP-STLNR) = STKO-STNLR.
Read BOM text from table STZU.

3. Search BOM – Production.
BOM link search from MAST -
Select material numbers and BOM link from MAST based on the material numbers selected above using the following conditions:
Material (MAST-MATNR) = Materials selected above and
Plant (MAST–WERKS) = As in input and
BOM usage (MAST-STLAN) = 1 (Production usage).

Read BOM Header and Item.
Read BOM Header details as per data mapping (Section 5.2) from table STKO using the
conditions:
BOM Number (STKO-STLNR) = BOM number got in previous step and
BOM alternative (STKO-STLAL) = BOM alternative got in previous step.

Read Item details as per data mapping (Section 5.2) from table STOP using the
conditions:
BOM number (STOP-STLNR) = STKO-STNLR.
Read BOM text from table STZU.

Search for Resource / Production Version (Production BOM’s only)

Read Production Version and Resource as per data mapping (Section 5.2) from table MKAL using the conditions:
Material number (MKAL–MATNR) = Material number from above selection (MAST) And
Plant (MKAL–WERKS) = Plant from above selection (MAST)
And
Alternative BOM (MKAL-STLAL) = Alternative BOM from above selection (MAST)
And
BOM Usage (MKAL-STLAN) = 1 (Production BOM).

Note:
1. If no production version exists for any of the BOM’s write such records at the bottom of the report under the heading “No Production Version Exists (Production BOM’s)”.
2. Sort the output on Plant, Usage and then on Material.
3. If multiple plants then the report will be displayed Plant wise.

• Header to be displayed for Production / Engineering BOM option.

4. Material BOM Comparison.
Search for BOM’s
BOM link search from MAST -
Select material numbers and BOM link from MAST based on the material numbers selected above using the following conditions:
Material (MAST-MATNR) = Materials selected above and
Plant (MAST–WERKS) = As in input.

Read BOM Header’s
Read BOM Header details as per data mapping (Section 5.2) from table STKO using the
conditions:
BOM Number (STKO-STLNR) = BOM number got in previous step and
BOM alternative (STKO-STLAL) = BOM alternative got in previous step.

Read Item details as per data mapping from STPO using the conditions:
BOM number (STPO-STLNR) = STKO-STNLR.

相关表列表:
MAST Material BOM
STKO BOM Header
STPO BOM Positions (detail)
MAPL Assignment fo Task Lists to Materials
PLKO Routing Group Header
PLSO Routing Group Sequence
PLPO Routing Group Operations
AFKO Production Order Header
AFPO Production Order Position (details)

可用函数
CSAP_MAT_BOM_READ

 

库位是否参与MRP运算

设置库位是否参与MRP预算,可以在IMG:Production -> Material Requirements Planning -> Planning -> Define Storage Location MRP per Plant,T-CODE: OMIR设置。但这不是问题的全部。

一个库位由参与MRP运算改为不参与运算,反之亦然,该库位已有的物料不受影响。其逻辑大概是这样的,物料是否参与MRP运算,决定在物料主数据(MRP4视图,SLoc MRP indicator栏位)。OMIR的设置只是供生成物料主数据的参考值,一旦生成则以物料主数据为准,故此不受OMIR设置的影响。

为此,当改变一个库位是否参与MRP运算的时候,还得改变该库物料的物料主数据,可通过MM02单独维护,或者MM17批量维护。

The setting in OMIR is just meant as a default. If you create a storage location view in an existing material master (can be as well via the automatic creation while doing a goods movement) then this indicator pops in. However if you do this config after your material masters are created, then you have to set the indicators manually in MM02 or use MM17 for mass update.

The material master is the only source from where the indicator is pulled when running MRP.

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